Debris recovered from the site - including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture and human bones and teeth has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old.
Last three are simulations on a computer based on scan data
Video and text used for education, fair use
32,000 year old underwater city found - Dwarka. In Northern India the remains of a city claimed to be Dwarka the City of "Lord Krisha" was found.
Submersion into the Sea
After Krishna left the earth for Vaikuntha,about 36 years after the Mahabharat War (3138 BC), and the major Yadava leaders were killed in disputes among themselves, Arjuna went to Dwarka to bring Krishna's grandsons and the Yadava wives to Hastinapur, to safety. After Arjuna left Dwarka, it was submerged into the sea. Following is the account given by Arjuna, found in the Mahabharata:
...imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city. Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory.
The Vishnu Purana also mentions the submersion of Dwarka, stating
On the same day that Krishna departed from the earth the powerful dark-bodied Kali Age descended. The oceans rose and submerged the whole of Dwarka.
A follow-up investigation was conducted by NIOT in November 2001, which included dredging to recover artifacts and sonar scans to detect structures. Among the artifacts recovered were a piece of wood, pottery sherds, weathered stones initially described as hand tools, fossilized bones, and a tooth. Artifacts were sent to the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in Hyderabad, India, the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany (BSIP) in Lucknow, Germany, and the Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad, India. The piece of wood was carbon dated to an age of 9,500 years old.
NIOT returned for further investigation in the Gulf from October 2002 to January 2003. During these excavations, NIOT reported finding two paleochannels flanked by rectangular and square basement-like features. Artifacts were recovered by means of dredging, including pottery sherds, microliths, wattle and daub remains, and hearth materials. These artifacts were sent for dating at the laboratories of Manipur University and Oxford University. The wattle and daub remains are composed of locally available clay, reed, husk, pottery pieces, and pieces of fresh water shell. The wattle and daub also shows evidence of partial burning.
The most recent work in the Gulf of Khambhat took place from October 2003 to January 2004 and was primarily a geologic study. Techniques used during this investigation include bathymetry survey, sub-bottom survey, side-scan survey, and magnetic survey. One of the major findings from this investigation concerns the orientation of sand ripples at the site. NIOT researchers claim that there are two sets of ripples visible at the site; One set is a natural feature formed by tidal currents while the other set has formed in relation to underlying structural features.
Diving into Dwarka's Ruins
Now evidence surfacing in the ocean environs around the current city points to an origin of Dwarka within prehistoric times, found at depths of 40 meters and off shore more than a km away over a 9 km stretch. Such a distance suggests very old dates for the structures to have been flooded, stretching as far back as the last Ice Age, nearly 12,000 years. The NIOT (National Institute of Oceanography and Technology of India) led by India's Union Minister for Human Resource Development, Science and Technology division, Murli Manohar Joshi spotted the structures using side-scanning sonar quite by accident while monitoring the seafloor for pollution. The buildings are evenly spaced and contain deep foundations within the seabed; a number of regular steps seem apparent within a number of the structures. A feature called the "fortress" is nearly 98 meters in length (321 feet). Joshi also calls to attention other buildings underwater, including a granary, drainage system, and public bath. There can be no doubt that the features are man-made.
Computer simulated underwater image of sonar-scanned "fortress" at the Gulf of Khambat off the coast of the Gujerat Peninsula 131 feet below the water surface
Radiocarbon dating of recently found artifacts confirm the date by archaeologists diving in the areas of the stone monumentsbeneath the waves. A piece of wood found amongst the ruins gives a date of about 9500 years into the past. Minister Joshi of Ocean Technology announced these findings along with other organic artifacts which place the site at 7500 years old and older. Within the past few months before the Ministers official announcement, engineers had begun extensive dredging operations there and pulled up human fossil bones, fossil wood, stone tools, pieces of pottery and many other things that indicated that it indeed was a human habitation site around the stone ruins. The pieces of pottery that have been found do not seem to contain any similar characteristics of inland pottery, even those of the Indus Sarasvati civilization dating around 2500 BC and earlier.
Archaeological Finds: Truly Ancient Pottery
A thin piece of reddish and brown ceramic pot shard was taken to the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmadabad, Gujarat State, using standard Thermoluminescence based pottery methods to place the age of the sample. The pottery piece gave a date of 13000 ± 1950 BP. Another pottery piece, which was ill fired, on OSL dating (Location 21 o12.54’ N; 72 o 30.370’ E) by Oxford University gave an age of 16840 ± 2620 BP. These are indeed old, giving them an age c. 17000 BC. Other pieces of fired clays (for making pottery), were found giving ages of 20130 ± 2170 BP (Location 21 o 13.720’ N; 72 o 26.190’ E) and 16600 ± 1150 BP (Location 21 o13.80 ‘N; 72 o 26.10 E), by OSL as determined by the Oxford University dating lab. The well fired 3 potteries in the northern palaeochannel gave ages of 7506 ± 785 BP, 6097 ± 611 BP (both by Manipur University) and 4330 ± 1330 BP by Oxford University. Hearth materials that were gathered in the dredging efforts from the southern township (Location 21o03.04 N 72o30.70 E) by TL dating from PRL, Ahmedabad gave an age of 10000 ± 1500 BP whereas the hearth material near the top in the northern township nearer to the shore gave an age expectantly earlier resulting of 3530 ± 330 BP by OSL, Oxford University.
More miraculous even is the discovery of ceramic plates that contain eroded "impressions"; Joshi believes the tablets may be evidence for the some of the first writing in the world.
As of today, the NIOT or any other agency has yet to actually conduct careful underwater marine archaeological digs of the site with manned dives. The legislation required to do so is complicated and requires on average much more funds than regular land-based digs and surveys. This is another reason why such places as Dwarka in other parts of the world's inundated vast coastal ocean shelves remain unstudied and elusive to archaeologists.